A computer is a device that can execute mathematical calculations very Promptly by following specific instructions. The word computer is derived from the Greek word “compute.” The word compute means to calculate. And the word computer means calculating device. In the past, a computer did only calculations. But nowadays, with the help of sophisticated computers, they can do many kinds of work and perform complex calculations very fast and accurately. A computer is a device that collects information and analyzes and dispenses it through various processes. At the heart of the expansion of civilization and its rapid advancement is the strong influence of mathematics and computers. The first computer came to Bangladesh in 1964.
Inventor of Computer:
The father of the modern computer is the scientist Charles Babbage. He was simultaneously an English mechanical engineer, mathematician, inventor, and philosopher. He was born in 1791 in London.
The scientist Charles Babbage first invented the use of instruments in 1810 to calculate numbers and tables mechanically. And it was with his thinking that by 1830 he planned to make a device powered by punched cards and perform a sequential task. This device is considered the first version of the modern computer and is also known as the analytical engine. Unfortunately, however, due to a lack of funding, Charles Babbage could not complete his project. But even then, his analytical engine could mechanically solve various mathematical problems. And many of the features of this engine are still very important in today’s modern computer design. That is why Charles Babbage is called the father of modern computers.
On the other hand, John von Neumann is said to be the father of the modern computer. He is a Hungarian descent American mathematician. Newman is a pioneer in the utilize of operator theory in quantum mechanics. He has played his part in many fields, including set theory, geometry, flowing dynamics, economics, interactive programming, computer science, statistics.
History of Computer:
The world’s initial computer is called ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer). It is the first digital computer to work with programs. From then on, the computer era began.
During World War II, the U.S. military aimed to construct a fully electronic computer. Computer giants such as Von Newman, the father of modern computers, Presper Eckertie Jr., and Herman Goldstein joined the Moore School of the Electrical Engineering University Pennsylvania. Forty scientists operated this three-paneled computer in an underground room of fifty feet by thirty feet. The first computers, such as the ENIAC, were made of vacuum tubes and large. Computers were used only for business, university, or government purposes then. Later, using computer transistors, the size became smaller, and readiness increased.
Classification of computers:
Computers used in the world today can be classified in different ways such as: -
- Classification of computers according to the type of work and application.
- Classification of computers according to structure and nature of work.
- Digital computers or classification of computers according to size, volume, and functionality.
There are two types of computers according to the type of work and application. Namely: -
1. Computer for particular use.
2. Computer for general use.
There are also three types of computers according to the nature of work or technology. Namely, -
1. Analog computer
2. Digital computer
3. Hybrid computer
There are four types of digital computers or computers in terms of size, volume, and functionality. Namely: -
2. Mainframe computer
3. Mini computer
There are five types of microcomputers again. Namely: -
1. Desktop computer
2. Laptop computer
3. Palmtop computer
4. Notebook computer
5. Pocket computer
Different parts of the computer:
Computers are usually made up of three types of parts.
- The input unit 2) Central processing unit 3) The output unit.
Data or data is entered into the computer through input. That data is converted through the primary functional or central processing unit and is seen through the output after performing specific tasks.
- Input unit: The parts through which the user can connect to the computer are called input units. Examples of input devices like mouse, keyboard, camera, etc.
2. Central Processing Unit or CPU: The heart or soul of all computer systems is the CPU or Central Processing Unit. Usually, CPU Is divided into these three parts
- Arithmetic and Logical unit
- Memory unit
- Control unit.
i) Arithmetic and Logical Units: Arithmetic for performing any party mathematical equation or various compound operations, and The logical unit is responsible.
ii) Memory unit: Information and programs etc., are stored in the memory unit. Therefore, the memory unit is again divided into two parts a) primary memory b) secondary memory.
a) Primary memory: The part of the computer that stores the programs needed to run is called primary memory. Usually, the primary memory is divided into RAM and ROM.
RAM (Random Access Memory): This memory stores various applications and information used by computer users. It is feasible to both read and writes the information stored in this memory. Data stored in RAM is volatile, i.e., turning off the power switch removes or deletes the data stored in this memory and is no longer saved.
ROM (Read Only Memory): The information needed to run a computer is stored in this memory by permanent programs. Usually, this memory can only be read or viewed. The information stored in this memory is invaluable. It means deleting the data stored in this memory with or without turning off the power switch Can’t go.
b) Secondary memory: A large amount of information can be store in this memory. Hard memory disks, CDs, DVDs, etc., are notable in this memory.
iii) Control Unit: It controls the activity of different components and establishes links between different units.
3) Output Unit: Perform various processes according to the instructions of the computer user. The parts that make the computer visible in a language commonly understood by the helper are called output parts or output devices. For example, monitor or visual display units, printer projectors, etc., are significant output devices. Again, the sound card is another notable output device for listening to music.
How a computer works:
Computers usually conduct a combination of two mediums. Discussed with examples below.
First, hardware: All the devices, parts, and devices with the external shape are called hardware. Computer hardware can again be divided into three parts.
A) Input equipment: keyboard, mouse, disk, scanner, card reader, digital camera, etc.
B) System unit: hard disk, motherboard, AGP card, RAM, etc.
C) Output equipment: Monitor, printer, disk, speaker, projector, headphone, etc.
Second, software: Software is a set of programs or programs that make the hardware work by creating a relationship between the computer’s hardware and the user.
Computer software can be classified into two parts. Namely: -
1. System software
2. Application software
1 / System Software: System software keeps the computer’s ability to execute practical programs successfully by maintaining the coordination of work between different computer units. Some popular system software is: — Fedora, Mac OSX, Windows XP, Windows Vista, Linux, Windows 7, Windows 7, Windows 10.
2 / Application software: Application software is a program used to solve practical problems or process data. There are thousands of application software such as — Microsoft Office, Photoshop, Media Player, etc.
Uses of computer:
Banking and financial sector
Computers play an essential role in managing all the money in the world. Below is an example of how computers are used in financial markets and workplaces with money.
• ATM — When you go to withdraw money from an ATM, you are operating a computer.
• Digital Currency — When keeping money in a bank, it is stored as a digital record. A computer monitors the actual amount of money in your account.
• Trading — Stocks and commodities are traded using computers. Thousands of computers conduct trading without human need, using advanced algorithms.
Business is another significant sector for computers, and most of the money-making and spending are done using a computer. Here are some examples of how computers are used in business:
• Register — If the business sells goods to a consumer (for example, a grocery store), a cash register, a computer is used to complete the transaction.
• Workers Computer — Many businesses provide each employee a computer that helps them produce work and solve company problems.
• Server — If the business needs to be connected to the Internet and use a computer or to manage e-mail and files, all this can do quickly by using a server.
Today’s communication around the world is powered by almost all digital and computer. Below is an example of how computers are used in the communications field.
• Smartphone — If you have a smart mobile phone, you have a computer in your pocket.
• E-mail — Today, more electronic mail or e-mail is sent than postal mail, and the computer manages all the writing and distribution of that e-mail.
• VoIP — All voice over IP communication (VoIP) is handled and completed by the computer.
• Computer-aided speech — People with disabilities or who cannot speak can use a computer to communicate. Stephen Hawking, for example, uses a computer to communicate so he cannot speak.
• Voice Recognition — Voice Recognition A computer is used to translate recorded audio into text or other data.
Defense and military forces
Many technologies (for example, GPS and the Internet) are primarily designed for defense-related purposes. Today, computer defense is an essential aspect of the industry.
• Encryption — Secure communication is crucial in the defense industry, and this type of communication is established through computer encryption.
• GPS — The use of computers with GPS helps the military to track people and equipment
• Computer-Assisted Flight — The use of computers makes it easy for jets and other aircraft to fly and operate.
• Drones — Computers are used to operate a drone remotely.
As computers evolved, so did the use of computers in education. Below is a list of how computers can use computers in education.
• Internet — Connecting a student to the Internet allows him to have an endless supply of knowledge. Internet will not be possible without a computer.
• Learning — Computer education can use to create visual learning experiences for students. A student can gain more knowledge by using an electronic whiteboard, projector, and sound system with the computer.
• Writing — Although reporting can still be done using a pen, pencil, or even a typewriter, a computer makes writing, formatting, saving, sharing, and printing reporting easier.
• Keeping records — The computer tracks students’ scores, identifies deserving students, and produces a final report.
• Exams — The computer can assist students and teachers in the examination process through a series of questions and monitor the results.
Without computers, the Internet would not exist. Below are some examples of how computers work with the help of the Internet.
• DNS — When you type a URL like https://www.itdoctor24.com/, a DNS translates it to an IP address that points to an anyone computer server.
• Web Server — Each web page requires a web server or computer to receive and send requests when someone wants to view a web page.
• Programs — A computer is also required to run scripts and programs. For example, a search engine, online shop, or forum are all examples of programs that require a computer.
• Services — Other services such as e-mail, FTP, and SSH also require a computer.
Medicine, or healthcare, is another area where computers are essential and used every day. The following is an example of how computers help in the medical field.
• Medical records — More and more people’s medical records are being stored digitally. Digitally storing these files allows for quick access and transfer of medical information so that doctors can know the history of your previous physical condition.
• Monitoring — The computer can help monitor a patient and alert staff in case of an emergency.
• Research — Computers play a helpful role in many medical studies. Without computer assistance, this may not be possible or may take longer to become effective.
• Diagnosis — Computers can help compare a patient’s history and current condition, from collecting existing data to a database.
• Surgery — Although humans still perform most surgeries, robot-assisted surgery by computer is becoming more practical and readily available. After programming, these robots can make surgery more accurate and faster and reduce human error chances.
Computers also play an essential role in transportation. Below are some cases of how computers help with the transportation section.
• Cars — Most people don’t realize that all modern cars today have multiple computers that help control and manage cars.
• Traffic lights — Traffic lights that help control traffic that is computer-driven.
• GPS — Vehicles that have GPS mapping systems have computers to display and count them.
• Aircraft — Aircraft help to transport millions of people and goods every year, which helps to control the entire plane by computer.
• Public transport — Trains, buses, subways, and all types of public transport rely heavily on computers to manage traffic flow, operations, and fares.
• Self-driving cars are relatively new, but self-driving cars are growing popular and rely on a computer to decide how to drive.
Below are cases of how computers are used in the film and audio industries.
• Editing — Once a movie, video, or audio track has been created, a computer can edit the media instead of cutting the movie or audio track mechanically.
• CGI — Computer animation and CGI have become a norm in big-budget movies. Computers and sometimes servers are used to create these images.
• Manipulation — The computer can manipulate pictures, videos, and audio. For example, one can use Adobe Photoshop to add or remove elements from a picture.
• Recording and Playback — The computer can assist in recording audio tracks and then selectively playback each audio track.
• Product Building — Computers can also be used to help create new multimedia content. For example, three-dimensional animations, three-dimensional models, or a techno audio track can make on the computer. After creating a three-dimensional model, a three-dimensional printer can also use to build a product.
• TVs, DVDs, Media Players — Today’s smart TVs, DVD players, DVRs, etc., contain simple computing circuits to connect the device to the Internet, use apps, and compose much more.
The robotics industry is exploding, and computers again play an essential role in robot control. Below are cases of how computers help control robotic equipment.
• Controls — Computers that assist control robotics. Without a computer, a robotic arm does not know where to place apart.
• Learning — The computer can take input from a robot and take that information to help it learn and adapt to new situations.
Some problems are so critical that it would be impossible for humans to calculate or take a long time to calculate. Computers help solve these complex problems promptly.
• Weather Forecast — Earth has a very complex weather system, and computers collect all the data and create weather reports.
• Product Simulation — Before going into product development, the computer simulates how it will work in the real world. By creating a simulation, a company or government agency can make adjustments before moving on to product development.
In a word, a computer is a device that is capable of doing almost everything.
The predominance of modern computers:
1 / Speed: Computer works incredibly fast. It is so fast that it works through an electrical signal, which travels at almost the same speed as the speed of light.
2 / Credibility: Although the computer works fast, its work is perfect. Due to advanced technology, it is always possible to perform certain tasks perfectly accurately with specific programs on the computer. However, in this case, the program and data must be 100% accurate. Modern computers have proven that humans make mistakes, but computers do not.
3 / Precision: The precision of the results obtained in the computer is incomparable. The subtlety of its calculations is exceptionally high. In the case of mathematical calculations, it can give results in many places.
4 / Tirelessness: Even if you work continuously for a long time, the computer does not get tired or does not make mistakes in calculations.
5 / Memory: The computer’s memory is immense; Billions of data and instructions can store in it.
6/ Rational Decision: Not only can a computer perform various mathematical processes, but it can also perform logic processes. Can also make reasonable decisions on various matters.
7 / Versatility: Today’s computer has become a powerful means of accomplishing complex tasks. Computers can help people with many things, from simple calculations to solving complex scientific problems.
8/ Automation: The computer works automatically. Computers perform a series of interdependent tasks. It means that the computer can solve the problem by processing the data as per the instructions given.
Finally, In a word, computers have a lot of uses. Its immense use in various fields is starting from housework to business, scientific, etc. But, above all, it has brought a unique revolution in the field of communication.